Trace elements – list

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Macro and Micronutrients – this is an extremely important elements of any living organism. Without sufficient data biological substances, none organism could not function normally. These biological elements are involved in such vital functions as muscle contraction, nerve conduction, blood clotting, bone formation, etc. In a previous article we talked about the macronutrients, and now it’s time to talk about the trace elements ( a list of the best food consumption norms, useful properties).

It is very important that the body gets enough of these substances from the outside (food, water, etc.), since he can not synthesize them. If you do not receive a sufficient number (rate) of macro and micronutrients, this will entail a lot of problems.

List of essential trace elements (which we can get from the food or water): Fe , Zn , F , Mo , Cu , Si , I , Mn , Al , In , Se , Cr

Iron (Fe)

Why we need it:

  • It takes part in the circulation of education process
  • stabilizes CNS work
  • improves blood hemoglobin
  • It is involved in the transport of oxygen in red blood cells
  • It is present in the cytochromes (which, in turn, take a major role in the oxidative processes in cells)

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • impaired erythropoiesis
  • anemia
  • going dysplasia
  • weak performance
  • deteriorating endurance
  • thyroid function deteriorates

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

5 – 8

10/12 – 14

15 – 18

thirty

20

10

 

The best sources of iron: pistachios, pork, beef, spinach, lentils, peas, buckwheat, barley grits, oatmeal, wheat, peanuts, dogwood, cashew nuts, corn, pine nuts.

Zinc (Zn)

Why we need it:

  • participates in insulin production process
  • enhances immunity
  • an essential element of more than one hundred enzymes
  • involved in the transport of carbon dioxide
  • It provides stability of biological membranes
  • It accelerates wound healing (very important for diabetics)
  • participates in the process of restoration and renewal of tissues
  • is involved in the formation of bones
  • It improves the production of testosterone naturally

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • disturbed growth process
  • slow wound healing
  • poor appetite
  • baldness
  • low immunity
  • depression

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

2 – 3

3 – 4/5 – 8

7

10

eleven

10

 

The best sources of zinc: liver (pork, beef, chicken), pine nuts, cheese, peanuts, beef, beans, peas, lamb, pork, wheat, buckwheat, barley grits, oatmeal, duck, turkey.

Fluorine (F)

Why we need it:

  • participates in the formation of tooth enamel
  • is involved in the processes of bone formation
  • It makes bones stronger
  • It helps in the fight against caries
  • It prevents the development of senile osteoporosis

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • Teeth become brittle
  • gum disease
  • caries
  • alveolysis
  • impaired growth

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

0.1 – 0.5

0.7 – 1/2

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.8

 

The best sources of fluoride: mackerel, tuna, hake, pollock, cod, haddock, capelin, salmon, ruff, flounder, carp, chum salmon, mullet, smelt, oyster.

Molybdenum (Mo)

Why we need it:

  • It is involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism
  • mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis
  • participates in the electron transfer process
  • is involved in the processes of production of uric acid
  • is involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • metabolism violation
  • with gastrointestinal problems
  • violation of the central nervous system functions

The recommended daily requirement (g):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

thirty

40 – 50

50 – 100

50 – 100

50 – 100

50 – 100

 

List of the best sources of this trace element , molybdenum: liver (pork, beef, poultry), peas, lentils, beans, oatmeal, buckwheat, wheat, turkey, corn, rice, pistachios, carrots, wheat, raspberries, barley grits.

Copper (Cu)

Why we need it:

  • It takes part in the formation of red blood cells
  • It betrays the skin elastic view
  • needed for melanin formation and iron metabolism
  • involved in creating the myelin
  • participates in electron transportation

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • anemia
  • low body temperature
  • violation of skin pigmentation and hair
  • depression and mental disorders
  • rash
  • labored breathing

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

0.2

0.3 – 0.5 / 0.7

1 – 1.5

1 – 1.5

1 – 1.5

1 – 1.5

 

The best sources of copper: liver (beef, pork, poultry), peanuts, hazelnuts, shrimp, peas, pasta, lentils, buckwheat, rice, wheat, walnuts, pistachios, oatmeal, beans, octopus.

Silicon (Si)

Why we need it:

  • participates in the formation of the structure of glycosaminoglycans and their protein complexes
  • participates in the formation of the connective tissue of the aorta, trachea, tendons, bones
  • normalizes fat metabolism
  • involved in the synthesis of collagen
  • normalizes blood pressure

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • itchy skin
  • bones and brittle hair
  • decrease in tissue elasticity and skin
  • increased vascular permeability

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

15 – 25

20 – 30

35 – 50

35 – 50

35 – 50

35 – 50

 

The best sources of silicon: barley groats, buckwheat, beans, honeysuckle, peas, lentils, corn, pistachio nuts, wheat, oatmeal.

Iodine (I)

Why we need it:

  • It plays a pivotal role in the thyroid (involved in establishing – thyroxine)
  • It strengthens the central nervous system
  • needed to create phagocytes (phagocytic cells – blood cells that destroy foreign bodies)
  • regulate energy and heat exchange

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • Graves’s disease
  • It slows down the central nervous system development
  • mental retardation in children
  • weakening of memory, hearing, sight
  • constipation
  • menstrual disorders in women

The recommended daily requirement (g):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

110 – 130

90/120

150

230

260

200

 

The best sources of iodine: Feijoa, seaweed, squid, hake, pollack, haddock, cod, shrimp, bass, capelin, catfish, tuna, salmon, catfish, flounder.

Manganese (Mn)

Why we need it:

  • mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis
  • It plays an important role in cell development
  • It helps mitigate the toxic properties of many compounds
  • is involved in fat metabolism
  • helps get rid of bad cholesterol
  • normalizes the work of the brain and CNS
  • normalizes blood sugar
  • fatty acids prevents excessive deposits in the liver

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • the main symptom is not found, but there are some issues that may be indirectly related to the lack of this element (atherosclerosis, ovarian and testicular atrophy, anemia, decreased bone strength)

         The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

12

2 – 4

5 – 8

5 – 8

5 – 8

5 – 8

 

The best sources of manganese: hazelnut, pistachios, peanuts, almonds, walnuts, spinach, garlic, boletus, beetroot, pasta, chanterelles, liver (pork, beef, poultry), salad, white fungus (boletus), apricot.

Aluminum (Al)

Why we need it:

  • participates in the formation of protein complexes and phosphate
  • participates in the formation of connective tissue, epithelium, bone regeneration, digestive enzyme activity
  • It affects the function of parathyroid glands

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • the main symptom is not detected

The recommended daily requirement (g):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

10 – 15

10 – 25

30 – 50

30 – 50

30 – 50

30 – 50

 

List of the best sources of this trace element , such as aluminum: oatmeal, wheat, peas, rice, potatoes, avocado, artichoke, aubergine, savoy cabbage, kiwi, artichokes, peaches, beans, cabbage, semolina.

Boron (B)

Why we need it:

  • participates in the process of preservation of bone tissue
  • boron compounds possess anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects
  • It is able to reduce the level of fatty acids in the blood
  • It takes part in the construction of cellular membranes
  • It enhances the ability of insulin to lower blood sugar

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • slow growth
  • in violation of the skeletal system
  • strengthening the predisposition to diabetes

The recommended daily requirement (mg):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

0.3 – 0.7

1 – 1.5

2 – 3

2 – 3

2 – 3

2 – 3

 

The best sources of boron: apricot, buckwheat, peas, lentils, beans, barley grits, beets, oatmeal, corn, apples, cabbage, carrots, lemon, eggplant, kiwi.

Selenium (Se)

Why we need it:

  • slows the aging process
  • enhances immunity
  • protects cells from cancer
  • participating in thyroid functions
  • an antioxidant to neutralize free radical

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • anemia
  • cardiomyopathy
  • growth retardation
  • developmental disorders of bone
  • muscle aches
  • severe weakness

The recommended daily requirement (g):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

10

20 – 30

40 – 70

50 – 70

50 – 70

40 – 70

 

The best sources of selenium: liver (pork, beef, chicken, ducks, turkeys), octopus, egg, corn, rice, beans, barley groats, lentils, pistachios, wheat, peas, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, broccoli.

 

Chromium (Cr)

Why we need it:

  • is involved in carbohydrate metabolism
  • is involved in generating the normalization of blood sugar
  • is involved in transporting protein
  • normalizes blood pressure
  • reduces the feeling of fear and anxiety

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • change in blood glucose level
  • violation of the processes of higher nervous activity
  • increasing the oil concentration in the serum
  • growth retardation
  • decrease in life expectancy
  • decrease in sperm fertilizing capacity
  • increasing the number of atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic wall

The recommended daily requirement (g):

infants

Children

Women

Husband.

Age

0-1

2-5 / 6-11

12-70 +

take.

feed.

12-70 +

Norm

20

30 – 100

50 – 150

100 – 200

100 – 200

50 – 150

 

The best sources of chromium: tuna, liver (beef, chicken, Utkin), beets, carp, herring, capelin, mackerel, shrimp, catfish, salmon, flounder, carp, carp, duck, pearl barley.

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